In experimental studies, cardiovascular-type exercise has been shown to have an acute effect on reducing both psychological withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in abstinent smokers [20]. Smoking contributes to reasons for hospitalisation, and the period of hospitalisation may be a good time to provide help with quitting [15]. Adding nicotine replacement therapy to a counselling program increases the success rate of a program for hospitalised smokers [15]. Complications related to anaesthesia and surgery are important to patients and expensive for the healthcare system. Postoperative complications result in increased morbidity and mortality, and extended hospital stay and convalescence [18]. The smoking behaviour of medical students may predict their intentions to counsel patients who are smokers about smoking cessation [28]. Tobacco consumption is one of the most important risk factors for premature death throughout the world. Medical professionals and trainees play a major role in tobacco control [31]. The results of the meta-analyses imply that rapid smoking has significant specific efficacy, that other aversive methods do not, and that there is borderline evidence that increasing the severity of aversive stimulation affects outcome [16]. Work-based smoking cessation programmes are similar to those deployed in other institutions (e.g. hospitals, colleges, schools) or in the community. They include behavioural or pharmacological interventions, or a combination of both, and comprehensive health promotion initiatives, targeting individuals or cohorts of workers. Proven cessation strategies can be conducted opportunistically on workplace premises and in working hours [17].

Audrone Barkauskiene