Identification Of Dietary Patterns Associated With Blood Pressure In A Sample Of Overweight Australian Adults

Background & Objectives: The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet provide strong evidence for an optimal dietary pattern for blood pressure (BP) control; however, investigation at the level of key foods in a dietary pattern is sparse. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary patterns driven by key foods with BP in a sample of obese Australian adults. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data of 118 participants (45.1±8.4 years, mean BP=124.1±15.8/72.6±9.2 mm Hg) recruited in a weight reduction randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12608000425392). Dietary assessment was by a validated diet history interview. The average of three office BP measurements was taken. Factor analysis extracted dietary patterns and their relation to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was analysed using multiple linear regression. Results: Eight dietary patterns were identified based on leading foods: meat and alcohol; seafood; fats; fruits and nuts; legumes; confectionery; sweet foods; and yeast extracts and seasonings. A lower SBP was associated with alignment with the fruit and nuts pattern (β=−4.1 (95% confidence interval −7.5 to −0.7) mm Hg) and with seafood for DBP (β=−2.4 (−4.6 to −0.3) mm Hg). SBP and DBP were higher with yeast extract and seasonings (β=4.3 (1.4–7.3); 2.5 (0.9–4.0) mm Hg, respectively). Conclusion: In obese adults attending for weight loss, dietary patterns that included larger amounts of fruits and nuts and/or seafood were associated with lower BP at baseline, whereas patterns that were characterized by yeast extract and seasonings were associated with higher BP. Key words: Noncommunicable/chronic diseases, risk factors; Food, nutrition; Obesity; Epidemiology. Key Messages: 1- In a clinical sample of overweight Australians, usual dietary patterns that include larger amounts of fruits and nuts were associated with lower systolic BP. 2-Dietary patterns characterized by larger intakes of seafood were associated with lower diastolic BP. 3- Dietary patterns that included more yeast extract spreads and seasonings were associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP.

Shirin Anil