Background: Nutrition literacy (NL) is derived from health literacy, and which is used to elaborate individualsâ€™ health literacy regarding eating behavior. College stage is the key period in which an individualâ€™s eating behavior is established, and current findings regarding college studentsâ€™ nutrition-related problems indicates they are at risk. Thus, to understand the NL status of college students is a priority. Methods: Initial formulation of NL indicators based on Daily Food Guide, followed by a two-round Delphi survey in dietitians, and final selection of indicators. They were used to develop a 32-item NL test spreading in four domains, which was finalized after pretested and administered to a sample of 1269 college students across north, central, and south areas of Taiwan. Results: The response rate was 96%. Cronbachâ€™s Î± of the test was 0.81, and it passed the proposed indicators (GFIï¼.926 > .90, AGFI=.913 > .90, RMSEA=.015 < .08) using confirmatory factor analysis. The difficulty level ranged from -3.22 to 0.11 in item response theory analysis. Furthermore, NL scores had a significant positive correlation with healthy eating behaviors. Conclusions: The NL test was found to be reliable and valid with a low level of difficulty for basic NL ability, and it can be used as a reference by governmental nutrition education units to investigate NL among college students with a similar dietary context. Performance of NL was positively correlated with healthy eating behavior. Keywords: Health promotion, Food, nutrition, Adolescent health Key Messages 1.25 nutrition literacy indicators of Taiwan college students were developed 2.A 32-item NL test of Taiwan college students was formulated and validated 3..Performance of NL was positively correlated with healthy eating behavior among college students.