"Background: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the most severe form of chronic kidney disease, where kidney function deteriorates to the extent that kidney replacement therapy (KRT) in the form of dialysis or kidney transplantation is required to survive. This study estimates the total number of new cases of ESKD in Australia, including cases treated with KRT and those not receiving these treatments. Method: A combined dataset was used for this study. It utilised the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, which records those receiving KRT (KRT-treated), and the National Mortality Database, which contains records of ESKD deathsâ€”a proxy measure for those not receiving KRT (non-KRT-treated). Results: In 2013, there were around 5,100 new cases of ESKD in Australia, or around 14 cases per day. The age-standardised incidence rate of ESKD was 19 per 100,000 population. The number of people with ESKD who were receiving KRT was similar to the number not receiving KRT. After adjusting for age, the incidence rate of KRT-treated and non-KRT-treated ESKD was 10.2 and 8.9 per 100,000 population, respectively. Discussion/Conclusions: This study demonstrates the use of combined data to more fully capture the impact of ESKD in Australia by counting both KRT-treated and non-KRT-treated cases. It shows that for every new case of ESKD that received KRT, there was one case that did not. Keywords: Noncommunicable/chronic diseases, Research methodologies and methods, Data linkage, Gender equity Key messages: 1. Providing up to date estimates of the total incidence of ESKD provides an important foundation for determining the ESKD-related burden in Australia. 2. Combined data can be used to more fully capture the impact of ESKD in Australia by counting both KRT-treated and non-KRT treated cases. 3. For every new case of ESKD that received KRT, there was one case that did not."