Risk Factors for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEi)-Associated Cough in an Immigrant Filipino Population



Objective: We have previously examined risk factors for ACEi-associated cough in a multi-ethnic population from the greater Vancouver region of Canada, and no specific ethnic association was determined. In this study, we studied the subgroup of immigrant Filipino patients to determine if risk factors could be found to distinguish cases and controls. Methods: A prospective case-control study enrolled patients who were expatriates from the Philippines. Twelve (14.5%) patients with ACEi-associated cough and seventy-one controls were included in this review. Analysis of comparisons was made for type of ACEi, age, gender, ethnicity, co-morbidities, and concomitant other pharmacology. Results: Neither gender nor type of ACEi were associated with cough (p>0.05). Current age of patients maintained a weak association – more cough with increasing age (p=0.03). There was no significant association with thirteen different co-morbidities (p>0.05). Among pharmacological agents, there was a greater association of cough with the use of sleep medications (p=0.01), but this was on the basis of only one patient difference between cases and controls, which places less confidence in this finding. Conclusions: Although female gender, Asian heritage, and age have been associated in other studies with an increased frequency of cough after ACEi use, no such strong associations were evident in this selected patient population. Patient profiling to avoid risk of ACEi-associated cough is not possible for this patient cluster. Key words: cardiovascular disease prevention


Nevio Cimolai

The University of British Columbia

Dr. Cimolai is a community practitioner and Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia.

There are no financial or other conflicts of interest for the data so presented.