Rapid ageing of the society has reminded us of an emerging issue: What must be done to support people to age-in-place? In Japan, the problem became evident in 1986, and various measures have been tried since then. This report discusses how they have been developed, and argues that there are urgent issues still needing solution from the viewpoint of a housing sociologist. The population forecast in 1986 alarmed Japan that radical steps must be taken to cope with the aging. Changes to the physical environment were proposed by the Ministry of Construction early 1990s, including dwelling design to be suited to highly aged society (not just designing for seniors). Drastic change for caring for seniors was first proposed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1989, which resulted in 2000 as the introduction of long-term care insurance system for seniors. However it actually lacked coordination with the housing policy due to the wall between two Ministries, and most of expenses to be covered were limited to medical and welfare related ones. Only recently, the Ministry of Health and Welfare put forward the idea of community-based integrated care system that recognized the importance of securing physical place of living as the fundamental requirements for the QOL of seniors. Yet, the Ministry lacks effective tools to promote the upgrading of standards of living environment: Institutions and the like are still the preferred place of living, with only slight reference to dwellings. More integration of policies between two Ministries are essential. Ageing/elderly, built environment, policy and legislation Key Messages 1. Population is inevitable in any country. 2. Ageing-in-place is the only feasible solution regarding the choice of where to live. 3. Medical/welfare policy must be integrated with housing policy.