Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Test-Retest Reliability of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) Among Thai Smokers



Background: The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is one of the questionnaires used to evaluate nicotine dependence and is widely used. The FTND has been translated into many languages including Thai. However, the psychometric properties of the Thai version have not been published. Objectives: To translate the FTND into the Thai language by using the standard method according to the cross-cultural adaptation process and to evaluate the test-retest reliability Methods: The FTND was translated into Thai according to the cross-cultural adaptation process. Afterward, participants completed the questionnaire two times, at baseline and 7 days after. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for the test-retest reliability. Results: The average age of 30 participants was 32.4 years and 44.8 % graduated a Bachelor's degree. Participants smoked an average of 11.3 cigarettes per day over an average period of 11.7 years. The ICC (3, 1) of FTND was 0.82. Conclusions: Overall, the ICC of this Thai version was good. Therefore, this Thai FTND could be used in the clinic and in research. Keyword Themes: Health systems, Health-related behaviours, Research methodologies and methods Key Messages 1. This is the first study translate the FTND into the Thai language according to the cross-cultural adaptation process and showed good test-retest reliability 2. This Thai FTND can be use in the clinic and in research 3. Thai smokers can use this questionnaire as a self-evaluation for their nicotine dependence level


Thaniya Klinsophon

Chulalongkorn University

PhD candidate
Physiotherapy